Several diseases and disorders affect the bones. These diseases include osteoporosis, primary bone cancers, osteonecrosis, and Paget’s disease of bone. You should know about them so that you can take precautionary measures to avoid them.
During the first two decades of life, new bone mass is gained at a faster rate than older bone mass. However, after menopause, age-related bone loss accelerates. A number of factors influence the degree to which women suffer from osteoporosis. The age at which a woman begins to lose bone mass is determined by her individual risk factors.
Several international societies were established in order to promote the understanding of bone diseases and encourage biomedical research. In Spain, the Spanish Society for Bone and Mineral Metabolism Research (SEIOMM) was formed. SEIOMM’s main activities are the promotion of research, the dissemination of bone diseases and the training of health professionals.
The Society organizes activities at local and international levels. It creates ten working groups and coordinates their activities with other organisations. The Society provides about 120,000 euros to support research.
The Spanish Review of Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism is published three times a year. It contains information bulletins, clinical guides, and articles.
Generally, osteonecrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to a bone. Several diseases, such as cancer, can cause this to happen. Surgical treatments may also be required to treat osteonecrosis.
In some cases, osteonecrosis is caused by an infection. If the infection is left untreated, it can lead to the destruction of bones and joints. The patient may experience pain and limited movement.
When osteonecrosis is diagnosed, it is considered stage III or higher. This is the stage where more than a third of the bone’s weight-bearing area is dead. It can be difficult to detect osteonecrosis early.
The best way to prevent osteonecrosis is to avoid certain medical conditions, medicines, and other substances that can cause a loss of blood supply. These include steroid medications, alcohol, and certain drugs.
In addition, certain cancer treatments may cause damage to the bone and increase the risk of osteonecrosis. Cancer treatments may also cause the jawbone to be exposed.
Paget’s disease of bone
Typically, Paget’s disease of bone occurs in people who are over 55 years of age. It can affect many different bones, including the skull, pelvis, tibia, humerus, and spine.
Paget’s disease causes an abnormal growth of bone, which is weak and misshapen. Symptoms include pain and back and joint pain. In severe cases, surgery may be needed. This disease can also lead to bone cancer.
It is not clear why Paget’s disease occurs. Some research suggests that it may be related to a viral infection. Other theories suggest that genetic or acquired factors may be responsible.
The symptoms of Paget’s disease include bone pain, bone deformities, bone growth, and bone fractures. X-rays can be used to diagnose the disease, and periodic X-rays can be used to monitor changes.
A bone biopsy can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. The procedure involves inserting a small needle into the affected bone, and collecting a sample. The sample is then injected into a vein. A radioactive isotope is then injected into the vein. The radioactive material quickly travels through the body, and collects in the affected area.
Primary bone cancers
Unlike other forms of cancer, primary bone cancers are rare. They account for less than 1% of all cancers diagnosed. They are typically aggressive tumors, which require prompt treatment. Surgical techniques have improved the outlook for bone cancer.
Primary bone cancers are generally classified by the type of cell they contain. There are two types: osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma arises from cartilage-forming cells, while osteosarcoma develops from bone cells.
Primary bone cancers usually affect young adults and children. They are typically found in the growing ends of the bones of young people, though they can occur in other parts of the body.
If the cancer spreads beyond the bone, symptoms may include pain, swelling, fatigue, and weight loss. In some cases, the cancer may cause a break in the bone. It may also cause numbness and weakness in the muscles. These symptoms are usually worse at night.
If the cancer is found in the bone, a surgical biopsy is often performed. The biopsy will show the type of cells in the tumor and the extent of the tumor. In addition, chemotherapy may be given after surgery. Chemotherapy aims to kill any cancer cells left in the body. It is sometimes given as tablets.